"Do you want to work or have children?" This is the 58th time Lulu asked herself.
Recently, Lulu's boss approached her and asked her if she would be transferred to a subsidiary to be the marketing director. This is a rare opportunity. The company is in an upswing period. Helping the company expand its territory means that there is greater hope of becoming a real management team in the future.
But she hesitated. "I am 32 years old, and my family has given birth to a baby very much. After giving birth to a baby, this intensity of work will definitely not be able to take care of the family. But I also know in my heart that once I miss this opportunity, it may be difficult to get a promotion. Up."
Family first or work first? Such problems plague many women in the workplace.
LinkedIn data shows that women spend 20% and 9% more time and energy on childcare and housework than men. In other words, after giving birth, women spend more time than husbands in caring for the family. To some extent, this makes gender an insurmountable barrier in the workplace.
And this is just one of the many difficulties women have to overcome in the workplace.
If we simply divide the career path of ordinary people into
First of all, when submitting resumes, female candidates have fewer potential opportunities than male candidates, and as the level of academic qualifications rises, women's discrimination in interviews will be more serious.
A survey published in Economics in 2018 showed that when all resumes are exactly the same except for gender and height, female job applicants with a bachelor degree received an average of 39% fewer interview notices than men; When the academic level rose to master's degree, the gap between the average number of interview notifications received by men and women widened to 53%.
After entering the workplace, the gap between men and women will be more obvious in income.
According to the "Global Gender Gap Report 2020" released by the World Economic Forum, the living environment of women in the workplace is continuing to deteriorate, with emphasis on the two viewpoints of "widening the global income gap between men and women" and "the income gap between men and women is expected to be eliminated in 257." .
根据世界经济论坛发布的《 2020年全球性别差距报告》，工作场所中妇女的生活环境正在继续恶化，重点是“扩大全球男女收入差距”和“男女收入差距有望在257年消除。” 。
The "2019 China Workplace Gender Difference Report" issued by BOSS directly shows that in 2018, the average salary of Chinese women was 6,497 yuan/month, and men’s was 8,300 yuan/month.
From a specific industry perspective, after avoiding the impact of sample extremes, the most serious pay gap between men and women in 2018 was in banking, securities/futures, medical and health, engineering construction, consulting and other industries.
The wage gap between men and women in these industries is more serious, largely because it is more difficult for women to enter core high-income positions. Take the financial industry as an example. In 2018, the proportion of women in core positions in the financial sector generally dropped by 3-8% year-on-year. Under this change, the proportion of men in high-income positions has increased significantly, which has further led to accelerated salary differentiation.
When companies and even the industry think that most women are incompetent for core positions, gender becomes what Facebook COO Shirley Sandberg calls Glass Ceiling—a glass ceiling that is invisible but easy to hit.
当公司甚至整个行业都认为大多数女性不适合担任核心职务时，性别就变成了Facebook首席运营官雪莉·桑德伯格（Shirley Sandberg）所称的“玻璃天花板”（Glass Ceiling），这是一种隐形的玻璃天花板，但很容易碰到。
Another data also confirmed the solidity of the ceiling. The "Global Gender Gap Report 2020" calculates the proportion of women on the company’s board of directors. In China, this figure is 9.7%, less than half of that of the United States (21.4%), while the number one French woman’s share on the board is as high as 43.4%.
另一数据也证实了天花板的坚固性。 “ 2020年全球性别差距报告”计算了公司董事会中女性的比例。在中国，这一比例为9.7％，不到美国的一半（21.4％），而法国女性在董事会中的比例则高达43.4％。
A 2011 McKinsey report pointed out that the workplace is unfair:
Li Hua works in a sales job in a foreign trade company. She told Mr. DT: "We have achieved a certain level of performance in our company and can be qualified to open another branch as the person in charge. I have been in the company for 3 years, and there are only 10 out of more than 100 persons in charge. Female. If the performance of men and women is similar, the person in charge will definitely choose a boy unless the actual performance of the girl is much higher than that of the boy. For example, Dong Mingzhu is appreciated by the boss with one-sixth of the group's sales."
Therefore, let us briefly review the career advancement of women: Under the same conditions, women get fewer opportunities than men when submitting resumes; after entering the workplace, women’s average salary is lower than men’s, and the gap is increasing. Large; when the workplace is advanced, women still have fewer opportunities to enter management positions than men, and the average salary ratio between men and women in the workplace continues to be imbalanced.
So, what is hindering women's career advancement?
First of all, we have to make a point: in the workplace, men and women aspire to success, but the difference is that women have more concerns about success.
The survey data directly hired by BOSS shows that no matter what level of education they are in, there are always more men than women who "strongly desire success". Although with the rise of academic qualifications, women with a master's degree and above began to surpass men in their self-confidence and desire for success, but at the same time, their worries have deepened.
In other words, in the pursuit of success, women cannot be as desperate for their careers as men with similar conditions around them.
Families will hinder women's career path, which is everyone's consensus. The Lulu mentioned at the beginning of the article is a typical example. Research shows that nearly 60% of men and more than 70% of women believe that “women need to spend more energy to take care of their families” is the main reason hindering women's promotion in the workplace.
Cui Cifen, director and producer of the news department of China Television Taiwan, shared an experience of her own: when she was at the grassroots level, she once put a family photo in the office. The boss saw it and shook his head disapprovingly; but the male colleague put the photo, but the boss said : Not bad, he is a good new man. The same family has different meanings for men and women in the workplace.
We can understand that men and women have different advantages in specific industries because of body structure and other reasons. For example, in industries that require more manual labor, such as mining/smelting, engineering construction, decoration and decoration, it is indeed more difficult for women to be competent, and the proportion of female practitioners is relatively small, which is understandable.
But in a modern society where mental work is dominated by society, women’s dislocation in the workplace has not improved.
In the "Global Gender Gap Report 2020", the World Economic Forum defines the scope of work in frontier fields (jobs that cannot be replaced by artificial intelligence in the future). In these industries, only women in the humanities and content production have a higher proportion of employees than men.
You may be wondering, is it because the number of women with these vocational skills is insufficient, so that the gender ratio in some industries is greatly imbalanced? the answer is negative.
After further statistics on the female talent pool (the proportion of female talents in this field) and the proportion of female employees entering this field, you will find that
Xiaoxiao, who just graduated from computer this year, told DT Jun: "Although I have got a few good offers this year, my school recruits are far inferior to my male classmates in terms of grades, internships and project experience. The quantity and quality of offers, and the speed at which offers are received are much worse."
Judging from the four major indexes of the "Global Gender Report", China has approached the 1.0 equality standard in both the "received education" and "healthy living" indexes. Especially in higher education, China's gender equality index is already Ranked first in the world, the number of women in higher education began to exceed men.
But in terms of "economic participation", there are still gaps between men and women in China.
That is to say, although women enjoy the same rights as men from birth to education, they are passively or actively, more or less excluded, once they have to do something for this society. It's like on the battlefield of life, I have prepared all the battles, but before the horn sounded, you told me not to go to the battlefield.
Of course, employers also have their own considerations. For a company, productivity and efficiency are very important things. And because of differences in physical strength, the nature of the work in some positions is indeed not suitable for women. So, we also know that
Under the premise of "equality", both men and women can get rewards corresponding to their efforts in jobs that match their abilities.
But for now, prejudice is the biggest test we face.
A BBC survey showed that when it comes to seeing men and women who are more "suitable" for a job, our expectations are constrained by stereotypes. For example, firefighters are more suitable for males and nurses are exclusive to women. However, it is unwise to put gender labels on professions and make them "men's professions" or "women's professions"-for example, some people ridicule and distrust male nurses.
More importantly, these stereotypes not only originate from employers, but also widely exist among job seekers-both men and women.
In the long march of equality between men and women, gender has never been a means of attacking each other. Mr. DT agrees with Zhihu netizen @耶利米: In this era when the trend of not recruiting women in some companies is intensifying,